26 May 2017
Béres, Laura “Maintaining the ability to be unsettled and learn afresh: What philosophy contributes to our understanding of ‘reflection’ and ‘experience’.” Reflective Practice, Vol 18(2), Mar, 2017. pp. 280-290. DOI: 10.1080/14623943.2016.1269003 Accessed May 2017.
Laura Beres writing her peer-reviewed article for the journal Reflective Practice, suggests the claim of two philosophers namely: Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer. Within the practice of psychologists, clinical social counselors, and more, there is a constant need for the words “reflection and experience” to be used (Beres 281). Beres intends on proving that these practitioners often do not fully understand the complexity of such words, and backs the claim that these two philosopher’s philosophies “might contribute to the development of a richer discussion of these terms within therapeutic discourses” (Beres 281). This brings to light, just as with the CEO found in Brendel’s writing, that even experienced professionals can too take a step back and analyze the problem of a professional lack of ethics through philosophical involvement. This source is seen credible in my point of view because it is peer-reviewed and it utilizes two additional, well-known philosophers. I will highly consider using this article to add more emphasis on the fact that philosophy is for even already knowledgeable, experienced individuals, and that philosophy is therefore needed mainstream to improve the ethics of business leaders.
Brendel, David. “How Philosophy Makes You a Better Leader.” Harvard Business Review. 19 Sept. 2014. https://hbr.org/2014/09/how-philosophy-makes-you-a-better-leader. Accessed 14 May 2017.
David Brendel, a psychiatrist based out of Boston, writes a peer-reviewed article for the Harvard Business Review on how philosophy has many benefits towards the gaining of leadership qualities that are often needed in higher-up positions of companies. He introduces the argument that in many seminars for example, the goal is to change the behavior of CEOs and other leadership positions, however he portrays something rather interesting with this question: “But what about the beliefs and values that drive behavior?” (Brendel). He then adds to this through his thesis which argues that “executive coaching and leadership programs” hardly speak of how to improve leader’s ethics and how they can turn to philosophy to do so (Brendel). I find this article credible not only because it is peer-reviewed but also because a study reported by the BMC Neuroscience is included supports the idea that critical reasoning and reevaluation done through the study and application of philosophy. In addition, there is backed up results of a philosophical counselor with a CEO client that illustrates how it “positioned him to lead the firm through a treacherous time” (Brendel). I will utilize this article to show that CEOs can benefit from philosophical self-reflection. I wish to also include in my research paper, the report found in BMC Neuroscience. This will illustrate how science proves the value of self-reflection and therefore supports the argument that what philosophy can bring a solution to the business world’s unethical thinking.
Harvard University Press. “What Is Ancient Philosophy?” Review of What Is Ancient Philosophy?, by Pierre Hadot. Harvard University Press http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674013735 Accessed 12 May 2017.
The Harvard University Press writes this review of the book What Is Ancient Philosophy? by Pierre Hadot to help inform the reader. Hadot wished to inform readers what the purpose of ancient philosophy was. His thesis, as illustrated by the Harvard University Press, argues that the purpose of “ancient Greek and Roman philosophy all tended toward one goal: to provide a means for achieving happiness in this life, by transforming the individual’s mode of perceiving and being in the world” (Harvard University Press). One of the main points that he stresses is how to the ancients it was more than just understanding or learning theories, rather it was to actually to change the manner of living (Harvard University Press). This concept correlates well with what Olberding proposes in her writing about the benefits of ancient philosophy as well as with Brendel’s suggestion on changing what drives unethical behavior. This review seems to be credible even though it is lacking a specific author. I find this argument extremely beneficial for my writing because I can see how philosophers can simply speak but not show. Therefore, I wish to make use of this review to add additional backing to the concept that there needs to be a change to an ethical manner of living—not just the understanding of theories.
Olberding, Amy. “Etiquette: A Confucian Contribution to Moral Philosophy.” Ethics, vol. 126, issue 2, Jan. 2010, pp. 422-446. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uvu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=071328cc-2644-44b0-8982814d6ec7b7cb%40sessionmgr101&vid=8&hid=113 Accessed 23 May 2017.
Amy Olberding, writing a scholarly article in the journal Ethics, wishes to “show why etiquette enjoys such pronounced emphasis in early Confucian moral philosophy” and “to recommend interest in etiquette to contemporary moral philosophers” (Olberding 424). Early in her paper, Olberding quoting Confucius, states “Do not look at anything that violates li; do not listen to anything that violates li, do not speak about anything that violates li; do not do anything that violates li” (Olberding 422). For emphasis, li is defined by Olberding as etiquette and manners (Olberding 424). I find this useful because of the importance that Confucians put on li to create more stability in individuals and therefore improve their society, and how it should be of interest to “contemporary moral philosophers” (Olberding 424). The business world needs ethics, so I can see how the purposes of li can support my argument that philosophy is the needed solution. This article seems to agree with Brendel on the fact that there has to be some kind of control of behavior, and that the best way is to address the ethics and values of that individual. This article is a credible source since the journal it is found in, Ethics, is copyrighted by the University of Chicago Press, and is a peer-reviewed article. It all boils down to my argument that philosophy courses are the best way to prevent unethical business behaviors.
Walker, Caren M. “Engagement in philosophical dialogue facilitates children’s reasoning about subjectivity.” Developmental Psychology, Vol 49(7), Jul 2013. pp. 1338-1347.http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uvu.edu/10.1037/a0029870 Accessed 24 May 2017.
Caren Walker gives a suggestion, in this peer-viewed article written for Developmental Psychology, that to improve a child’s reasoning, it is important for them to engage in philosophical arguments. Walker states, “one cognitive skill that appears to be highly correlated with epistemological understanding is the ability to understand and produce sound argumentation” (cited in Walker 1339). However, Walker takes no clear position before her study was performed. She writes: “we hypothesized that engagement in philosophical dialogue would lead to improvement in children’s ability to support their perspective and consider opposing perspectives when confronted with conflicting claims” (Walker 1340). This study was conducted over a 3-month period with a total of 41 second grade students (Walker 1340). Something notable in the data found in the study was that there “was a significant effect of the philosophy intervention on children’s own arguments” (Walker 1342). Philosophy courses can benefit students in secondary education. I find this article credible because of it being a peer-reviewed source and because of the study that was included in it. Perhaps a larger sample size and multiple test would add to its credibility; however, I would argue that teaching ethics is fairly unique in its ability to shape and transform that even with a sample size of 41 students. I will consider using this source because it reinforces the idea that ethics courses can improve the behavior of all groups, from children to business leaders.